History - Drying Rivers
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Panic in Telangana, AP as Krishna dams go dry for the first time
No inflows received from upstream areas
Hyderabad: This year might go down in history as the worst year that both the states
have ever seen as far as water inflows into their dams are concerned.
August is over and not a drop a drop of water has flown into the Krishna Basin Dams
In Telangana and AP. Officials say only a miracle can save the situation.
The miracle will have to be something like the huge flood in 2009 when over 25 lakh cusecs were recorded at Srisailam on October 2, 3 and 4.
June, July and August normally account for an estimated inflow of 400 TMC ft into the dams due to the Southwest monsoon. This year will be one of the worst as not a drop of water has been received from upstream.
September, when the floods normally recede, is supposed to contribute 200 TMC ft to the reservoirs in the two Telugu-speaking states, which isn’t likely.
“This is the worst water year which we have heard of; our priority now is not irrigation but to meet drinking water needs under the Krishna Basin projects for which we need to prepare contingency plans,” said C. Muralidhar TS engineering-in-chief.
The Justice Brijesh Kumar Tribunal, which had dealt with Krishna River water distribution among the riparian states in its final verdict in 2013 — which is still pending with the Centre — had stated that Krishna River flows should be shared among the states even in deficit years like this year.
Drying Godawari Drying Krishna River
Seawater is becoming a critical resource as global freshwater supplies come under increasing stress, but conventional desalination is an expensive, energy-sucking process. Renewable energy offers a chance at lowering both costs and emissions, and renewable-powered desalination was a hot topic at the 2013 World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi.
The latest move is a solar powered desalination plant aimed at treating 60,000 square meters of seawater daily for the northeastern city of Al Khafji. According to the developer, this will be the world’s first utility scale, solar powered desalination plant.
Present Situation about draught hit areas in India
Some of the earliest appearances of desalination in history date back to experiments by Aristotle and other intellectuals in ancient Greece. The brilliant minds of that era came up with distillation and filtration using soil deposits to try and obtain drinking water from the sea. Prior to the Second World War, desalination systems based on evaporation were commonly employed in boats.
Desalination contraptions based on evaporation were proposed centuries ago but were not incorporated into boats until the 16th century, allowing them to be self-sufficient in the event of an emergency. Prior to the Second World War, desalination systems based on evaporation were commonly employed in boats that crisscrossed the oceans on long trans-Atlantic voyages.
However, the first large-scale modern desalination process to appear was multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) during the mid-20th century in the USA (1955). Furthermore, although multi-effect distillation (MED) had been discovered and had the potential to be more efficient than MSF, it took a while longer to make the MED process efficient on an industrial scale and this did not occur until 1959 when the first MED plant was constructed in Aruba.
The following year, the first synthetic and functional reverse osmosis membrane was produced at the University of California, made from cellulose acetate. In Spain, the first desalination plant was constructed in Lanzarote in 1964. This invention marked the start of a race in membrane desalination technologies and the first commercial desalination plant using reverse osmosis was inaugurated in California in 1965 at the Coalinga desalination plant, used for brackish water. It took a further nine years for the first sea water reverse osmosis desalination plant to come into operation, in 1974 in Bermuda. In Spain, the first desalination plant was constructed in Lanzarote in 1964.
Thermal desalination and membrane desalination have evolved side-by-side from these early advances in search of greater energy efficiency and lower costs based on technological advances, economies of scale and optimization of the different desalination processes used. The key to energy efficiency in desalination is the estimated thermodynamic limit for desalinating water. It is estimated that, at present, more than 60% of all installed capacity uses reverse osmosis technology and this ratio is expected to continue rising in the coming years since reverse osmosis has proved to be a reliable and more energy efficient technique than thermal desalination processes.
Most plants are located in the Middle East or North Africa, which use their petroleum resources to offset limited water resources. The current trend in dual-purpose facilities is hybrid configurations, in which the permeate from reverse osmosis desalination is mixed with distillate from thermal desalination. Basically, two or more desalination processes are combined along with power production. Such facilities have been implemented in Saudi Arabia at Jeddah and Yanbu.
The United States ranks fourth among markets for desalinated water behind Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Spain, according to an International Desalination Association presentation from 2011. Since the 1970s, California has dipped its toe into ocean desalination, talking, planning, and debating. The idea of a desalination plant in San Diego County, California began in 1993 after five years of drought. Membrane technology used in the plant was pioneered by General Atomics in La Jolla